Fire

Study of heat release rates of mining vehicles in underground hard rock mines

Library category: 
Author(s): 
Rickard Hansen
Publisher: 
Mälardalen University Sweden
Release date: 
2015

A unique study on fire safety in hard rock underground mines with focus on heat release rates of mining vehicles is presented. A literature inventory was conducted with respect to fires in underground hard rock mines, which revealed that the most common fire cause in underground mines was flammable liquid sprayed onto hot surface and the most common fire object was a vehicle. A major concern was the lack of documented fire experiments in mining vehicles and heat release rate curves. It also revealed the limited research carried out on fire safety and fire development on vehicles found in hard rock underground mines.

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Full-scale fire experiments with mining vehicles in an underground mine

Library category: 
Author(s): 
Rickard Hansen, Haukur Ingason
Publisher: 
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering
Release date: 
2013

 

This report comprises two full scale fire experiments in a mine drift in Sala, Sweden,involving a loader and a drilling rig respectively.

It was found in the experiment involving the loader that the front part of the vehiclenever ignited. The maximum measured heat fluxes at the front tyres were found tonever exceed the critical heat flux of natural rubber and thus ignition never occurred.Furthermore, the maximum temperature recorded at the hydraulic hoses in the waistwas 381 K, thus the low temperatures did not allow for further fire spread. The maximumheat release rate from the experiment was 15.9 MW and it was attained approximately 11 minutes after ignition. The resulting heat release rate curve of the wheel loaderfire displays a fire that is dominated by initially the sudden increase when primarily the first tyre is engulfed by flames and then by the slowly declining heat release ratesof the large tyres of the vehicle. Still, the stop of fire spread from the waist and forward clearly shortened the duration of the fire considerably.

It was found in the experiment with the drilling rig that the entire vehicle had participated in the fire and the combustible material had been consumed – except for the hydraulic hoses approximately two meters in front of the cab and forward, some amount of hydraulic oil and most of the low voltage cable on the cable reel. The maximum heatrelease rate from the experiment was 29.4 MW and it was attained after 21 minutes. The resulting heat release rate curve of the drilling rig displays a fire with high heat release rates and relatively short lived.

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Effective firefighting operations in road tunnels

Library category: 
Author(s): 
ngason Haukur ; Kim Hak Kuen ; Lönnermark Anders
Publisher: 
SP Tecnical Research Institute of Sweden
Release date: 
2010

The main purpose of this study is to develop operational procedures for fire brigades in road tunnels. Although much progress has been achieved in various fields of fire safety in tunnels, very little attention has been paid specifically to fire fighting in tunnels. This study is focused on obtaining more information concerning how effectively the fire brigade can fight road tunnel fires and what limitations and threats fire brigades may be faced with. This knowledge can help parties involved in tunnel safety to understand safety issues and enhance the level of fire safety in road tunnels

The METRO Project

Library category: 
Publisher: 
Mälardalens Folkhögskola
Release date: 
2012

The report compiles the results from the METRO-project. The different parts of the project; design fires, evacuation, integrated fire control, smoke control, extraordinary strain on constructions and fire- and rescue operations are presented separately. The most complicated and expensive part of the project was the performance of the large scale fire and explosion tests in the Brunsberg tunnel.

Fire ventilation

Library category: 
Author(s): 
Svensson Stefan
Publisher: 
Swedish Rescue Services Agency
Release date: 
2005

The book is primarily intended for the training activities of the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. Chapters 1-4 include theoretical concepts of fi re ventilation, the fundamental principles for fire gases, pressure and temperature conditions in buildings. The book also describes how fire ventilation ought to be implemented in practice, which problems and opportunities can be expected when creating openings in different types of structures, and the essentials of positive pressure ventilation (chapters 5-8). In chapter 9 there is a general reasoning on tactics during fire ventilation. The final chapter in the book presents examples of fire fighting situations.

Enclosure fires

Library category: 
Author(s): 
Bengtsson Lars-Göran
Publisher: 
Swedish Rescue Services Agency
Release date: 
2005

The aim of this book is to help provide a deeper understanding of how fi re behaves during enclosure fi res. It focuses on understanding the processes involved in an enclosure fi re. The main purpose, however, is not to look at how to actually fi ght this type of fi re, by using smoke venting or applying a particular extinguishing medium, for instance, even though appropriate actions like these will be discussed in some sections. When discussing fi refi ghting measures, reference will be made instead to relevant manuals dealing with smoke venting and extinguishing media.

Silo fires : fire extinguishing and preventive and preparatory measures

Library category: 
Author(s): 
Persson, Henry
Publisher: 
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Release date: 
2013

A silo fire entails many dangers, including the risk of gas and dust explosions, which can both lead to serious injury to personnel and a risk of the fire spreading into the associated conveyor systems which can rapidly lead to extensive damage. The use of nitrogen gas is the methodology that is considered to minimize the risks of personal injury and property damage. Silo Fires are a result of an extensive knowledge collating project in this field, both through various research projects and through the transfer of knowledge from a number of real silo fires. This collective knowledge forms the foundation for the recommendations given in the book.